Technical Specifications Of On Grid Solar Power Plant

Technical Specifications Of On Grid Solar Power Plant

With the rapid advancement of technology in the field of solar energy and the development of superior tools such as solar panel design software, an increasing number of people are installing solar power systems. The most common form of system built across the world is the on-grid solar power system.

What is an On-Grid Solar Power Plant?

Solar systems are categorized into three types based on their grid connection. They are on-grid solar, off-grid solar, and hybrid systems that combine the two. An "on-grid solar power plant" is a solar power generation system that is connected to the utility grid.The system's electricity is channeled to the grid, where it is used to power various appliances. At any moment, extra electricity is delivered back to the grid.

An on-grid solar system is far more appealing than an off-grid one. Solar electricity is produced only when the grid is accessible in an on-grid solar system. In the event of a grid failure, the power supply is entirely shut off. As a result, for emergency power supply, one must rely on backups such as DG sets. Power outages occur for a variety of causes, the most common of which are safety and technical.

An on-grid or grid-tied solar system is one that operates in tandem with the power grid. This implies that any surplus or deficit in electricity may be supplied back into the grid via net metering. Many household users are choosing an on-grid solar system since they may receive credit for the extra power produced by their system and save money on their electricity bills. You will always have access to power, whether from the solar system or the grid. They are not powered by batteries. The designing and the plot analysis of this power plant is done with the help of solar panel design software.

How Does On-Grid Solar Power Plant Work?

How Does On-Grid Solar Power Plant Work?

This system operates in two orientations: power can flow from the grid to which it is linked and from the user's residence to the grid. This characteristic makes the on-grid solar system both economical and practical. The solar panels, which are mounted on the user's home, are 'connected' to the grid. The solar panels turn sunlight into Direct Current electricity (DC). This current is then routed via an inverter. The solar inverter subsequently transforms the direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), which powers the electrical products. This power is then transmitted to the grid, where it is used on a daily basis. The grid-connected inverter also limits the quantity and voltage of energy sent to the family, as much of the power generated is significantly more than a home needs or can manage. The net meter is an important feature. It is a gadget that records the amount of energy delivered to the grid as well as the amount of energy consumed. The outstanding balance is recorded at the end of each month, and the consumer is sent a bill. This 'converted' power source is then distributed to households via the main power distribution panel.

Technical Specifications of On-Grid Solar Power Plant System:

Grid-tied or on-grid solar power plants are made up of an SPV array, a module mounting structure, a Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) that includes a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), an inverter, controls and protections, interconnect cables, and switches. The PV array is installed on a suitable framework. Grid tie SPV systems do not have batteries and should be constructed with the appropriate characteristics to supplement grid power throughout the day.

PV modules, metallic structures, cables, junction boxes, switches, PCUs, and other components and parts used in SPV power plants should correspond to BIS, IEC, or international requirements, wherever such specifications are available and appropriate.

Technical Specifications of Major Components of Solar PV Power Plant:

1. Solar PV modules and array

2. Module mounting structure

3. Junction Boxes

4. Power Conditioning Unit

5. DC & AC Switches

6. Cables and installation accessories

7. Earthing and lightning protection

Solar PV modules and array:

Solar modules shall be Crystalline (Mono/Poly) (or) Thin Film (or) Concentrator PV modules type. The peak power output of the PV Module shall be min 100Wp under STC. Module Voc shall be minimum 21V. The power output of the PV module must be reported under standard test conditions (STC).

The mechanical structure shall withstand gusts of wind / cyclonic wind up to 150km/hr from the back side of the panel.

Module Junction box (weather proof), where the module terminals shall be interconnected and output taken, shall be designed for long life outdoor operation in harsh environments as per the relevant BIS specifications and protected against surges. It should have a provision for “Opening” for replacing the cable, if required.

Modules shall be North –South oriented at the Tilt Angle of 11 -13 degree.

PV modules used in solar power plants must be warranted for output wattage, which should not be less than 90% at the end of 10 years and 80% at the end of 25 years.

Module Mounting Structure:

The PV modules will be mounted on fixed metallic structures of adequate strength and appropriate design, which can withstand loads of modules and high wind velocities up to 150 km per hour. The support structure used in the power plants will be hot dip Galvanized Iron (G.I).

Technical Specifications of Major Components of Solar PV Power Plant

The “Mounting Structure” should have the following features:

• The modules support structure shall be Mild Steel /hot dipped Galvanized (at least 120 micron) Iron for holding the PV modules. The size of angle iron should not be less than 50x50x5 mm.

• Each panel frame structure shall be so fabricated as to be grouted on the roof on its legs. The legs of the structure shall be fixed and grouted in the PCC foundation column made with 1:2:4 cement concrete. The foundation shall support SPV modules at a given orientation, absorb and transfer the mechanical loads to the ground properly and shall withstand a maximum wind speed of 150 km/hr.

• All nuts and bolts should be made of good quality Stainless Steel.

• The structure should be designed to allow easy replacement of any module.

• The array structure shall be so designed that it will occupy minimum space without sacrificing the output from the SPV panels.

• The minimum clearance of the lowest part of the module structure and the developed ground level shall not be less than 500 mm.

Junction Boxes:

The junction boxes must be dust proof, vermin proof, and waterproof, and they must be manufactured of FRP / ThermoPlastic. The terminals must be linked to a copper bus bar configuration of appropriate size. The junction boxes must have sufficient cable entry ports with proper cable glands for both incoming and outgoing cables. For simple identification, suitable markings must be supplied on the bus bar, and cable ferrules must be installed at the cable termination positions. Each main junction box must include an adequate rated blocking diode. The junction boxes must be of high quality.

Power Conditioning Unit (PCU):

As SPV array produce direct current electricity, it is necessary to convert this direct current into alternating current and adjust the voltage levels to match the grid voltage. Conversion shall be achieved using an electronic Inverter and the associated control and protection devices. All these components of the system are termed the “Power Conditioning Unit (PCU)”. In addition, the PCU shall also house MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker), an interface between Solar PV array & the Inverter,

DC & AC Switches

DC SIDE:

  • MCB of suitable rating shall be provided for connection and disconnection of array & PCU for maintenance purpose.
  • Switches and Circuit Breakers on the DC side shall be DC rated or they shall be sufficiently de-rated, if AC rated switches are used.

AC SIDE:

MCB of suitable rating shall be provided for connection and disconnection of PCU & load.

Cables and accessories:

All the cables shall be supplied conforming to IEC 60227/IS 694 & IEC 60502/IS 1554 shall be of 1.1 kV grade as per requirement. Only PVC copper cables shall be used.

The size of the cables between array interconnections, array to junction boxes, junction box to PCU, PCU to AC Distribution Box etc shall be selected to keep the voltage drop and losses to the minimum. Permissible Wire Drop on DC side shall be <= 1%

Earthing and Lightning Protection:

Earthing: The array structure of the PV yard shall be grounded properly using an adequate number of earthing kits. All metal casing or shielding of the power plants shall be thoroughly grounded to ensure safety of the solar power plants.

Lightning: The SPV power plants shall be provided with lightning & over voltage protection. The main aim in this protection shall be to reduce the over voltage to a tolerable value before it reaches the PV or other sub system components. The source of over voltage can be lightning, atmosphere disturbances etc.

1 MW Solar Power Plant Technical Details:

A "Ground Mounted Solar Power Plant, Solar Power Station, or Energy Generating Station" is a solar power plant with a capacity of 1MW or more. These solar power systems generate a big amount of electricity, which is more than enough to power any enterprise on its own or to sell to the government.

1 MW Solar Power Plant Technical Details

Anyone may now build up a solar power plant with a capacity ranging from 1KW to 1MW on their property or roofs. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and state nodal agencies are also giving solar subsidies ranging from 20% to 70% for household, institutional, and non-profit organizations in order to encourage such green energy sources. Throughout the procedure, you will be assisted by state electricity boards and distribution corporations. These programmes and incentives will increase electricity generation in India and encourage individuals to adopt solar power systems.

In a growing country like India, power demand is steadily increasing but output is constrained. Furthermore, we do not have adequate resources to store such a large amount of energy. As a result of the impending energy usage, it would be prudent to establish a solar power plant.

Here is the information regarding the estimation & investment model for setting up a 1 MW solar power system:

Particulars

Description

Capacity of Power Plant

1 MW

Generation per Year

14.60 Lakh (On Average)

Degradation 1 to 10 year

0.05%

Degradation 11 to 25 year

0.67%

Debt Percentage

70%

Equity Percentage

30%

Rate of Interest (Indian)

13.0%

Rate of Interest (Foreign)

10%

Repayment Period (Indian)

11 years

Repayment Period (Foreign)

15 Years

Percentage of Indian Loan

70%

Sale of Electricity

Rs.6.49

Cost of Project per MW

450 Lakh

O&M Cost per MW

8 Lakh/year

Depreciation

5.28%

Corporate Tax

30.28%

Minimum Alternate Tax

18.38%

Project Cost

450 Lakh

Debt

355 Lakh

Equity

95 Lakh



Scope of Solar Power System in India:

India is a developing country with a rapidly growing population. India is predicted to overtake China as the world's most populous country by 2022. India presents a favorable environment for investors looking to capitalize on India's solar potential. India has a long way to go in the solar energy business.

In the near future, India will explore new prospective locations and ensure that solar power is used to its full potential in order to gain global leadership. According to the "National Institute of Solar Energy in India," the country's solar power potential is over 750 GW. Because of aggressive state and central solar policies & programmes, India will gradually gain supremacy in the field of solar power generation.

India is currently transitioning to solar energy, which is one of the most brilliant economic movements in the world today. As we can see, the prices of fossil fuels are always growing, so this is a fantastic answer to the problem. Despite this, India has a lot of potential in the field of solar energy in the near future because solar electricity for homes and businesses is a cheap source of clean energy and advancements in tools and technologies like solar panel design software are favouring the current scenario of sustainable energy usage. It is also widely available across the country with no interruptions.